Waikato Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory
Samples used for radiocarbon dating must be handled carefully to avoid radiocarbon dating shell. Not all material can be dated by this method; only samples containing organic matter can be tested: Samples for dating need to be converted into a form suitable for measuring the 14 C content; this can mean conversion to gaseous, liquid, or solid form, depending on the measurement technique to be used. Before this can be done, however, the sample must be radiocarbon dating shell to remove any contamination and any unwanted constituents.
Two common contaminants are humic acid, which can be removed with an alkali wash, and carbonates, which can be removed with acid. These treatments can damage the structural integrity of the sample and remove significant volumes of material, so the exact treatment decided on will depend on the sample size and the amount of carbon needed for the chosen measurement technique.
Wood contains celluloseligninand other compounds; of these, cellulose is the least likely to have exchanged carbon with the sample's environment, radiocarbon dating shell it is common to reduce a wood sample to just the cellulose component before testing. Unburnt bone was once thought to be a poor candidate for radiocarbon dating,  but is now possible to test it accurately. The constituents of radiocarbon dating shell include proteinswhich contain carbon; bone's structural strength comes from calcium hydroxyapatitewhich is easily contaminated with carbonates from ground water.
Removing the carbonates also destroys the calcium hydroxyapatite, and so it is usual to date bone using the remaining protein fraction after washing away the calcium hydroxyapatite and contaminating carbonates. This protein component is called collagen. Collagen is sometimes degraded, in which case it may be necessary to separate the proteins into individual amino acids and measure their respective ratios and 14 C activity.
It is possible to detect if there has been any degradation of the sample by comparing the relative volume of each amino acid with the known profile for bone. If so, separating the amino acids may be necessary to allow independent testing of each one—agreement between the results of several different amino acids indicates that the dating is reliable. Hydroxyprolineone of the constituent amino acids in bone, was once thought to radiocarbon dating shell a reliable indicator as it radiocarbon dating shell not known to occur except in bone, but it has since been detected in groundwater.
For burnt bone, testability depends on the conditions under which the bone was burnt. The proteins in burnt bone are usually destroyed, which means that after acid treatment, nothing testable will be left of the bone. Degradation of the protein fraction can also occur in hot, arid conditions, without actual burning; then the degraded components can be washed away by groundwater. However, if the bone was heated under reducing conditionsit and radiocarbon dating shell organic matter may have been carbonized.
In this case the sample is often usable. Shells from both marine and land organisms consist almost entirely of calcium carbonate, either as aragonite or as calciteor some mixture of the two. Calcium carbonate is very susceptible to dissolving and recrystallizing; the recrystallized material will contain carbon from the sample's environment, which may be of geological origin. The recrystallized calcium carbonate is generally in the form of calcite, and often has a powdery appearance; samples of a shiny appearance are preferable, and if in doubt, examination by light or electron microscope, or by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy, can determine whether radiocarbon dating shell has occurred.
In cases where it radiocarbon dating shell not possible to find samples that are free of recrystallization, acid washes of increasing strength, followed by dating part of the sample after each wash, can be used: Particularly for older samples, it may be useful to enrich the amount of 14 C in the sample before testing. This can 9.2 matchmaking chart done with a thermal diffusion column.
Once contamination has been removed, samples must be converted to a form suitable for the measuring technology to be used. CO 2 is widely used, but it is also possible to use other gases, including methaneethaneethylene and acetylene. Libby's first measurements were made with lamp black,  but this technique is no longer in use; these methods were susceptible to problems radiocarbon dating shell by the 14 C created by nuclear testing in the s and radiocarbon dating shell. The steps to convert the sample to the appropriate form for testing can be long and complex.
To create lamp black, Libby began with acid washes if necessary to remove carbonate, and then converted the carbon in the sample to CO 2 by either combustion for organic samples or the addition of hydrochloric acid for shell material. The resulting gas was passed through hot copper oxide to convert any carbon monoxide to CO 2 radiocarbon dating shell, and then dried to remove any water vapour. The gas was then condensed, and converted to calcium carbonate in order to allow the removal of any radon gas and any other combustion products such as oxides of nitrogen and sulphur.
The calcium carbonate was then converted back to CO 2 again, dried, and converted to carbon by passing it over heated magnesium. Hydrochloric acid was added to the resulting radiocarbon dating shell of magnesium, magnesium oxide and carbon, and after repeated boiling, filtering, and washing with distilled water, the carbon was ground with a mortar and pestle and a half gram sample taken, weighed, and combusted.
This allowed Libby to determine how much of the sample was ash, and hence to determine the purity of the carbon sample to be tested. To create benzene for liquid scintillation radiocarbon dating shell, the sequence begins with combustion to convert the carbon in the sample to CO 2. Radiocarbon dating shell is then converted to lithium carbide, and then to acetylene, and finally to benzene.
This results in a coating of filamentous carbon usually referred to as graphite on the powdered catalyst—typically cobalt or iron. How much sample material is needed to perform testing depends on what is being tested, and also which of the two testing technologies is being used: