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The Shroud of Turin Turin Shrouda linen cloth that tradition associates with the crucifixion and burial of Jesushas undergone numerous scientific tests, the most notable of which is radiocarbon datingin an attempt to determine the relic 's authenticity. Inscientists at three separate laboratories dated samples from the Shroud to a range of AD —, which coincides with the first certain appearance of the shroud in the s and is much later than the burial of Jesus.
The idea of scientifically dating the shroud had first been shroud carbon dating wrong in the s, but permission had been refused because the procedure at the time would have required the destruction of too much fabric almost 0. The development in the s of new techniques for radio-carbon dating, which required much lower quantities of source material,  prompted the Catholic Church to found the Shroud of Turin Research Project S.
Dinegar and physicist Harry E. Gove consulted numerous laboratories which were able at the time to carbon-date small fabric samples. The six labs that showed interest in performing the procedure fell into two categories, according to the method they utilised:. To obtain independent and replicable results, and to avoid conflict between the laboratories, it was decided to let all interested laboratories perform the tests at the same time. Inthe S. However, a disagreement between the S.
A meeting with ecclesiastic authorities took place on September 29, to determine the way forward. In the end, a compromise solution was reached with the so-called "Turin protocol",   which stated that:. The Vatican subsequently decided to adopt a different protocol instead. These deviations were heavily criticized. The blind-test method was abandoned, because the distinctive three-to-one herringbone twill weave of the shroud could not be matched in the controls, and it was therefore still possible for a laboratory to identify the shroud sample.
Shredding the samples would not solve the problem, while making it much more difficult and wasteful to clean the samples properly. However, in a paper Gove conceded that the "arguments often raised, … that radiocarbon measurements on the shroud should be performed blind seem to the author to be lacking in merit … lack of blindness in the measurements is a rather insubstantial reason for disbelieving the result. We are faced with actual blackmail: The proposed changes to the Turin protocol sparked another heated debate among scientists, and the sampling procedure was postponed.
On April 17,ten years after the S. Among the most obvious differences between the final version of the protocol and the previous ones stands the decision to sample from a single bones booth and brennan start dating on the cloth. A further, relevant difference was the deletion of the blind test, considered by some scholars as the very foundation of the scientific method. Samples were taken on April 21, in the Cathedral by Franco Testorean expert on weaves and fabrics, and by Giovanni Riggi, a representative of the maker of bio-equipment "Numana".
Testore performed the weighting operations, while Riggi made the actual cut. Also present were Cardinal Ballestrero, four priests, archdiocese spokesperson Luigi Gonella, photographers, a camera operator, Michael Tite of the British Museum and the labs' representatives. A strip showing coloured filaments of uncertain origin was discarded. The other half was cut into three segments, and packaged for the labs in a separate room by Dr Tite and the archbishop. The lab representatives were not present at this packaging process, in accordance with the protocol.
The labs were also each given three control samples one more than originally intendedthat were:. On September 28,British Museum director and coordinator of the study Michael Tite communicated the official results to the Diocese of Turin and to the Holy See. In a well-attended press conference on October 13, Cardinal Ballestrero announced the official results, i. The official and complete report on the experiment was published in Nature.
As reported in NatureProfessor Bray of the Instituto di Metrologia 'G. Colonetti', Turin, "confirmed that the results of the three shroud carbon dating wrong were mutually compatible, and that, on the evidence submitted, none of the mean results was questionable. Although the quality of the radiocarbon testing itself is unquestioned, criticisms have been raised regarding the choice of the sample taken for testing, with suggestions that the sample may represent a medieval repair fragment rather than the image-bearing cloth.
Since the C14 dating at least four articles have been published in scholarly sources contending that the samples used for the dating test may not have been representative of the whole shroud. These included an article by American chemist Raymond Rogerswho conducted chemical analysis for the Shroud of Turin Research Project and who was involved in work with the Shroud since the STURP project began in Rogers took 32 documented shroud carbon dating wrong samples from all areas of the shroud and associated textiles during the STURP process in Luigi Gonella Department of Physics, TurinPolytechnic University on 14 Octoberwhich Gonellla told him were from the Raes sample.
On 12 DecemberRogers received samples of both warp and weft threads that Prof. Luigi Gonella claimed to have shroud carbon dating wrong from the radiocarbon sample before it was distributed for dating. The actual provenance of these threads is shroud carbon dating wrong, as Gonella was not authorized to take or retain genuine shroud material,  but Gonella told Rogers that he excised the threads from the center of the radiocarbon sample.
Raymond Rogers stated in a article that he performed chemical analyses on these undocumented threads, and compared them to the undocumented Raes threads as well as the samples he had kept from his STURP work. He stated that his analysis showed: The shroud carbon dating wrong part of the shroud does not contain these materials".